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APA: Other Examples

Learn how to create a paper and source citations in APA style.

YouTube Video (p. 215)

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation & Paraphrase):

(Author Surname OR Screen name, Year)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. OR Author screen name. (Year, Month Day {of video post}). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL of specific video

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation & Paraphrase):

(Norton, 2006)

References:

Norton, R. (2006, November 4). How to train a cat to operate a light switch [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vja83KLQXZs

Lecture or Course Notes (pp. 211-212)

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

Use this format to cite a set of notes from a lecture (e.g. power point slides provided by your instructor). To cite something from a lecture that was not included in a set of lecture notes, use the "personal communication" format (see below on this page).

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation & Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Lecture title [Format]. Retrieved from Red Deer College Course name Blackboard site.

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation & Paraphrase):

(Mokry, 2007)

References:

Mokry, J. (2007). Lecture 3: The wonders of APA [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from Red Deer College ZOO 342 Blackboard site.

Secondary Source (p. 178)

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done, but you are unable to track down the original research report. In this case, because you did not read the original report, cite only the source you did consult. The words “as cited in” in the parenthetical reference indicate you have not read the original research.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year qtd. as cited in Author Surname [of the source you read], Year)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Tip: For sources other than books, see other examples on this guide or refer to the APA manual

Example

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

Fong’s 1987 study (as cited in Bertram, 1996) found that older students’ memory can be as good as that of young people, but this depends on how memory is tested.

References:

Do not include Fong (1987) in your References; do include Bertram (1996).

Image from an Electronic Source (e.g. Work of Art, Photograph, etc.)

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

Citing images/art is NOT covered in the APA Manual. Examples are based on advice from the APA Blog.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation & Paraphrase):

(Artist Surname, Year)

References:

Artist Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of the artwork [Format]. Retrieved from URL

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation & Paraphrase):

(Di Carpi, 1540)

References:

Di Carpi, G. (1540). The holy family [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.getty.edu/art/collections/objects/o707.html

Personal Communication (e.g. Interview or Email) (p. 179)

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

Personal communications (e.g. interviews or emails) are not included in the reference list because they do not provide recoverable data. Cite them in text only.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation & Paraphrase):

(Interviewee First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, personal communication, Month Day, Year)

References:

Not included

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation & Paraphrase):

(Y. Martel, personal communication, April 15, 2005)

References:

Not included

Motion Picture/Film/Video (p. 209)

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation & Paraphrase):

(Producer Surname & Director Surname, Year)

References:

Producer Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Producer), & Director Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Director). (Year). Title of film [Format {e.g. Motion picture or DVD}]. Country where movie was produced: Name of Studio.

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation & Paraphrase):

(Davidson & Davidson, 1999)

References:

Davidson, F. (Producer), & Davidson, J. (Director). (1999). B. F. Skinner: A fresh appraisal [Motion picture]. United States: Davidson Films.

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