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APA: In-Text Citations

Learn how to create a paper and source citations in APA style.

What are in-text citations?

Whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize information from another source in your paper, you add an in-text citation at the end of the sentence to refer the reader to the citation for that source in your References. 

Components

In-text citations for APA use the first part of the References citation, the year and the page number. Usually, this is the Author's last name, the name of the corporate author, or the title of the source in the case when there is no author. When the title of the source is used for the in-text citation, put it in quotation marks. 

(Last Name, Year, p. #) 

(Corporate Author, Year, p. #)

("Title of Source," Year, p. #)

Two authors: List both of their last names connected with &. 

(Last Name & Last Name, Year, p. #)

Three or more authors: List the first author's last name followed by et al. 

(Last Name et al., Year, p. #)

No publication or copyright date: Use n.d.

(Last Name, n.d., p. #) 

Referring to a range of pages: Use pp. #-#.

(Last Name, Year, pp. #-#)

No page numbers: Refer to paragraph numbers instead: para. #. 

(Last Name, Year, para. #)

No author (article or book title appears first in Reference List citation): Shorten the article or book title to four words or fewer and put it in quotation marks.

("Shortened Title", Year, p. #)

 

You may also choose to incorporate the author's name and date into your sentence and place only the page number at the end of your sentence in parentheses.

[Author's Last Name] (Year) found that ... (p. #). 

Examples

Book 

References Citation

Brown, P. C., McDaniel, M. A., & Roediger, H. L. (2014). Make It Stick. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Retrieved from https://proxy.umpqua.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=771951&site=eds-live&scope=site

In-Text Citation for a Direct Quote 

"The time periods between sessions of practice let memories consolidate" (Brown et al., 2014, p. 63). 

According to Brown et al. (2014), "The time periods between sessions of practice let memories consolidate" (p. 63). 

In-Text Citation When Summarizing or Paraphrasing 

Sleep between retrieval practice is essential (Brown et al., 2014, p. 63). 

According to Brown et al. (2014), sleep between retrieval practice is essential (p. 63). 

 

Article 

References Citation

LaSalle, G. (2018). When the answer to vaccines is “No.” Journal of Family Practice67(6), 348-364. Retrieved from https://proxy.umpqua.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=129940420&site=eds-live&scope=site

In-Text Citation for a Direct Quote

"Developing a good rapport and trusting relationship, as well as using motivational interviewing approaches, can help communicate the importance of vaccines, while leaving patients with the sense that you have heard them and respect their intentions" (LaSalle, 2018, p. 349). 

LaSalle (2018) suggests that "Developing a good rapport and trusting relationship, as well as using motivational interviewing approaches, can help communicate the importance of vaccines, while leaving patients with the sense that you have heard them and respect their intentions" (p. 349). 

In-Text Citation When Summarizing or Paraphrasing

When discussing vaccines with patients who initially refuse them, remember that they are trying to make the best choices for themselves and their family, that your time educating them consistently will usually pay off (LaSalle, 2018, p. 348). 

LaSalle (2018) suggests that when discussing vaccines with patients who initially refuse them, remember that they are trying to make the best choices for themselves and their family and that your time educating them consistently will usually pay off (p. 348). 

 

Web Page 

References Citation

Hille, K. (2018, Oct. 19). Hubble spies glittering star cluster in nearby galaxy. Retrieved from https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/goddard/2018/hubble-spies-glittering-star-cluster-in-nearby-galaxy

In-Text Citation for a Direct Quote

"Today we know that globular clusters are some of the oldest known objects in the universe and that they are relics of the first epochs of galaxy formation" (Hille, 2018, para. 2).

According to Hille (2018), "Today we know that globular clusters are some of the oldest known objects in the universe and that they are relics of the first epochs of galaxy formation" (para. 2).

In-Text Citation When Summarizing or Paraphrasing

The Large Magellanic Cloud is useful for scientists studying star formation (Hille, 2018, para. 1). 

According to Hille (2018), the Large Magellanic Cloud is useful for scientists studying star formation (para. 1). 

How to Cite a Direct Quotation (pp. 170-1)

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

When you incorporate a direct quotation into a sentence, you must cite the source. Fit quotations within your sentences, enclosed in quotation marks, making sure the sentences are grammatically correct.

Examples:
Gibaldi (2003, p. 109) indicates that, “Quotations are effective in research papers when used selectively.”

Remember that “[q]uotations are effective in research papers when used selectively” (Gibaldi, 2003, p. 109).

In 2003, Gibaldi wrote that, “Quotations are effective in research papers when used selectively” (p. 109).

If a quotation is 40 words or more, omit quotation marks and use a block format in which the quotation is indented about ½ inch (or 5 spaces) from the left margin. Maintain double-spacing within the block quote. Cite the source an parentheses at the end of the block quote, after the final punctuation mark.

Example:
Co-presence does not ensure intimate interaction among all group members. Consider large-scale social gatherings in which hundreds or thousands of people gather in a location to perform a ritual or celebrate an event.
     In these instances, participants are able to see the visible manifestation of the group, the physical gathering, yet their ability to make direct, intimate connections with those around them is limited by the sheer magnitude of the assembly. (Purcell, 1997, pp.111-112)

How to Cite When Altering a Direct Quotation (pp. 172-3)

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

When you need to leave out part of a quotation to make it fit grammatically or because it contains irrelevant/unnecessary information, insert ellipses.
 
If you must add or slightly change words within a quotation for reasons of grammar or clarity, indicate the change with square brackets.

How to Paraphrase (pp. 170-4)

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

Even if you put information in your own words by summarizing or paraphrasing, you must cite the original author and the date of publication. You are also encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number (check with your instructor to see if page numbers are required).

Example:

Within the research paper, quotations will have more impact when used judiciously (Gibaldi, 2003, p. 109).

How to Cite More than One Author (pp. 175-7)

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

When a work has 2 authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs.

When a work has 3-5 authors, cite all the names the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, use the surname of the first author followed by et al.

When a work has 6 or more authors, use the surname of the first author followed by et al. every time the reference occurs in the text.

Tip: There is a helpful chart on how to cite references with different numbers of authors on page 177 of the APA Manual.

How to Cite Information When You Have Not Seen the Original Source (Secondary Sources) (p.178)

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done, but you are unable to track down the original research report. In this case, because you did not read the original report, you will include only the source you did consult in your References. The words “as cited in” in the parenthetical reference indicate you have not read the original research.

Example:
Fong’s 1987 study (as cited in Bertram, 1996) found that older students’ memory can be as good as that of young people, but this depends on how memory is tested. [Do not include Fong (1987) in your References; do include Bertram (1996).]

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