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Library Research Tutorial: What are citations?

Learn how to research at the UCC Library!

What are citations?

Citations direct readers to the source of information.

The following information...

Currently, the most influential factor for cocoa sustainability is believed to be the economic stability of cocoa farmers and their families and the profitability of their farms.

is from the following source...

Book Title: Chocolate and Health: Chemistry, Nutrition and Therapy 

Chapter: 2.6 Current View of Cocoa Sustainability

Page: 49 - 50

Authors: W Jeffrey Hurst and Philip K Wilson

Publication Year: 2015

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

Publisher Location: Cambridge, UK

Citation for References (APA)  

Hurst, W. J., & Wilson, P. K. (2015). Chocolate and health: Chemistry, nutrition and therapy. Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry.

Citation for Works Cited (MLA)

Hurst, W Jeffrey, and Philip K. Wilson. Chocolate and Health: Chemistry, Nutrition and Therapy. Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015.

What are style formats? APA MLA

Style formats (or citation formats) are format guides for how to style your papers, including your source citations.

These style formats cover things like:

  • where to put your name, the title of your paper, and page numbers,
  • how to cite your sources in the text of your paper,
  • what your bibliography (list of sources) should look like, and
  • what your paper should look like in general.

APA and MLA style formats are used here at UCC.

  • APA (American Psychological Association)
    • Used in the Sciences and Social Sciences (Science, Nursing, Psychology, Anthropology, Sociology, and Business) 
  • MLA (Modern Language Association) 
    • Used in the Arts and Humanities (Writing, Literature, Speech, and Foreign Language)

Should I use APA or MLA?

  • If you are unsure, ask your instructor.

When do I cite?

You must cite the source of your information whenever you

  • quote something,
  • paraphrase something, or
  • use ideas or information that you learned of from another source.

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Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, content in these research guides is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.